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Introduccion e historia del futbol

La historia del fútbol comienza en el Extremo Oriente, concretamente en China y Japón. En el siglo V a.c. los integrantes del ejército imperial chino se entrenaban con unos juegos muy parecidos al fútbol. La pelota era casi redonda y el juego consistía en disputarse la pelota entre dos equipos, principalmente con las manos aunque también con los pies, y pasarla por sobre un cordón tensado, ese era el objetivo.

Aunque también se da en Japón pero ellos lo tenían como un entretenimiento placentero, y no un castigo o entrenamiento militar, durante el cual los jugadores jugaban con mucha cortesía. Los japoneses también usaban las manos, los pies y una pelota de cuero de 22 cm. de diámetro rellenada con desecho orgánico. El campo de juego estaba muy bien señalizado.

En China el juego evoluciono como el de Japón, solo que perdió educación y cortesía cuando le dieron un carácter lucrativo, con apuestas y demás. Se llegaron a organizar partidos entre los dos países, en lo que se conoce como los primeros partidos de fútbol internacionales.

Los griegos fueron los que idearon una pelota eficaz rellena de aire ya desde por lo menos el siglo III a.C. Este deporte fue bautizado como “episkyros”.

Los romanos, tuvieron su propia versión de episkyros una rara mezcla de balonmano, fútbol y rugby al que llamaron haspartum. Se jugaba por dos grupos, que podían variar en número de integrantes, y consistía en impulsar la pelota hasta una línea que marcaba el campo rival y convertir el gol. El juego se utilizaba en la milicia como divertimento y como ejercicio físico.

En la Galia se jugaba un juego parecido al fútbol desde épocas inmemoriales, que no tenia conexión con el haspartum romano, y continuo jugándose en lo que hoy es Francia. El juego se llamaba soule y, hacia el siglo XI, se jugaba por todas las clases sociales. En Francia fue prohibido dos veces, una en 1319 por el rey Felipe V y otra en 1369 por Carlos V, debido a la violencia.

El fútbol que hoy conocemos se invento en alguno de los países del las islas Británicas, del que ya se tienen noticias en el siglo VIII. El 23 de octubre de 1863 puede considerarse como el día del nacimiento del fútbol. Fue en la Freemason’s Tabern, de Great Queen street en Londres, el lugar donde se fundo la Football Association (Asociación de Fútbol), primer club y asociación de fútbol del mundo.

En la historia del fútbol, los primeros que jugaron al fútbol en la Argentina, fueron los ingleses. Al principio era practicado por los marineros ingleses. En 1867 los hermanos Thomas y James Hogg fundan el Buenos Aires Football Club y jugaron allí con sus amigos al fútbol, en la calle del Temple (ahora Viamonte) 38. El 20 de junio de ese año se enfrentaron por primera vez dos equipos de fútbol de acuerdo con las leyes de ese juego. El encuentro se jugó en el Buenos Aires Cricket de Palermo. Más tarde comenzaría a jugarse por los empleados de los ferrocarriles, cuyos directivos eran ingleses.

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